Fructose metabolism and metabolic disease

J Clin Invest. 2018 Feb 1;128(2):545-555. doi: 10.1172/JCI96702. Epub 2018 Feb 1.


Increased sugar consumption is increasingly considered to be a contributor to the worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes and their associated cardiometabolic risks. As a result of its unique metabolic properties, the fructose component of sugar may be particularly harmful. Diets high in fructose can rapidly produce all of the key features of the metabolic syndrome. Here we review the biology of fructose metabolism as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose consumption may contribute to cardiometabolic disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adiposity
  • Animals
  • Fructose / chemistry
  • Fructose / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Glucose / chemistry
  • Glucose Transporter Type 2 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / metabolism
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Metabolic Syndrome / genetics
  • Metabolic Syndrome / metabolism*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sugars


  • Glucose Transporter Type 2
  • SLC2A2 protein, human
  • Sugars
  • Fructose
  • Glucose