Microbial inactivation and cytotoxicity evaluation of UV irradiated coconut water in a novel continuous flow spiral reactor

Food Res Int. 2018 Jan;103:59-67. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.004. Epub 2017 Oct 4.


A continuous-flow UV reactor operating at 254nm wave-length was used to investigate inactivation of microorganisms including bacteriophage in coconut water, a highly opaque liquid food. UV-C inactivation kinetics of two surrogate viruses (MS2, T1UV) and three bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 13311, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115) in buffer and coconut water were investigated (D10 values ranging from 2.82 to 4.54mJ·cm-2). A series of known UV-C doses were delivered to the samples. Inactivation levels of all organisms were linearly proportional to UV-C dose (r2>0.97). At the highest dose of 30mJ·cm-2, the three pathogenic organisms were inactivated by >5 log10 (p<0.05). Results clearly demonstrated that UV-C irradiation effectively inactivated bacteriophage and pathogenic microbes in coconut water. The inactivation kinetics of microorganisms were best described by log linear model with a low root mean square error (RMSE) and high coefficient of determination (r2>0.97). Models for predicting log reduction as a function of UV-C irradiation dose were found to be significant (p<0.05) with low RMSE and high r2. The irradiated coconut water showed no cytotoxic effects on normal human intestinal cells and normal mouse liver cells. Overall, these results indicated that UV-C treatment did not generate cytotoxic compounds in the coconut water. This study clearly demonstrated that high levels of inactivation of pathogens can be achieved in coconut water, and suggested potential method for UV-C treatment of other liquid foods.

Industrial relevance: This research paper provides scientific evidence of the potential benefits of UV-C irradiation in inactivating bacterial and viral surrogates at commercially relevant doses of 0-120mJ·cm-2. The irradiated coconut water showed no cytotoxic effects on normal intestinal and healthy mice liver cells. UV-C irradiation is an attractive food preservation technology and offers opportunities for horticultural and food processing industries to meet the growing demand from consumers for healthier and safe food products. This study would provide technical support for commercialization of UV-C treatment of beverages.

Keywords: Bacteriophage; Bio-dosimetry; Continuous-flow UV reactor; Inactivation kinetics; Microbial inactivation; UV-C irradiation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cocos / microbiology*
  • Cocos / toxicity
  • Epithelial Cells / drug effects
  • Epithelial Cells / pathology
  • Equipment Design
  • Escherichia coli / growth & development
  • Escherichia coli / radiation effects*
  • Escherichia coli / virology
  • Escherichia coli Infections / microbiology
  • Escherichia coli Infections / prevention & control
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects
  • Fibroblasts / pathology
  • Food Handling / instrumentation*
  • Food Handling / methods
  • Food Microbiology / instrumentation*
  • Food Microbiology / methods
  • Fruit and Vegetable Juices / microbiology*
  • Fruit and Vegetable Juices / toxicity
  • Levivirus / growth & development
  • Levivirus / radiation effects
  • Listeria monocytogenes / growth & development
  • Listeria monocytogenes / radiation effects*
  • Listeria monocytogenes / virology
  • Listeriosis / microbiology
  • Listeriosis / prevention & control
  • Salmonella Food Poisoning / microbiology
  • Salmonella Food Poisoning / prevention & control
  • Salmonella typhimurium / growth & development
  • Salmonella typhimurium / radiation effects*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / virology
  • T-Phages / growth & development
  • T-Phages / radiation effects
  • Ultraviolet Rays* / adverse effects