Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensive drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are significant health problems throughout the world. Although the main treatment is medical, adjunctive surgical resection may increase the chance of cure in selected patients with MDR-TB or XDR-TB. This study aimed to present a case series of patients who underwent surgical resection for MDR-TB.Between March 2008 and November 2011, surgical resection was performed on 54 patients including 34 with MDR-TB and 20 with XDR-TB at the Departments of Surgery of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center (Shanghai), Henan Chest Hospital (Henan), and Anhui Chest Hospital (Henan). Preoperative sputum smear samples were positive for 28 patients and sputum quantitative polymerase chain reaction was positive for 32. Patients were treated according to a standard therapy protocol for a mean of 4.2 months before the operation. The variables that affected treatment outcomes were identified through multivariate regression analysis.Fifty-four patients were operated for MDR-TB with localized disease usually complicated by cavity formation or destroyed lung. Thirty-seven were males and 17 were females. Median age was 37.8 (range, 20-75) years. Lobectomy was performed in 46 patients and pneumonectomy in 8. Muscle flaps were used in 36 of the patients with lobectomy and 8 with pneumonectomy. Various complications occurred in 6 (11.1%) patients, including bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient, bleeding in 2 patients, and prolonged air leak in 2 patients. A favorable outcome was achieved in 47 patients (87%) who underwent surgical resection. Higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with better outcome (odds ratio = 0.537, 95% confidence interval: 0.310-0.928, P = .026).Patients with MDR-TB had good treatment outcomes after adjunctive pulmonary resection, and with few complications. Higher BMI was related to a favorable outcome.
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