Investigating the long-term impact of a childhood sun-exposure intervention, with a focus on eye health: protocol for the Kidskin-Young Adult Myopia Study

BMJ Open. 2018 Jan 31;8(1):e020868. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020868.


Introduction: Excessive and insufficient sun exposure during childhood have been linked to serious diseases in later life; for example, insufficient sun exposure during childhood may increase the risk of developing myopia. The Kidskin-Young Adult Myopia Study (K-YAMS) is a follow-up of participants in the Kidskin Study, a non-randomised controlled trial that evaluated the effect of a 4-year educational intervention on sun-protection behaviours among primary school children in the late 1990s. Children who received the Kidskin intervention had lower levels of sun exposure compared with peers in the control group after 2 and 4 years of the intervention, but this was not maintained 2 years after the intervention had ceased. Thus, a follow-up of Kidskin Study participants provides a novel opportunity to investigate the associations between a childhood sun-exposure intervention and potentially related conditions in adulthood.

Methods and analysis: The K-YAMS contacts Kidskin Study participants and invites them to participate using a variety of methods, such as prior contact details, the Australian Electoral Roll and social media. Self-reported and objective measures of sun-exposure and sun-protection behaviours are collected as well as a number of eye measurements including cycloplegic autorefraction and ocular biometry. Data will be analysed to investigate a possible association between myopic refractive error and Kidskin intervention group or measured sun exposure.

Ethics and dissemination: The K-YAMS is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of Western Australia (RA/4/1/6807). Findings will be disseminated via scientific journals and conferences.

Trial registration number: ACTRN12616000812392; Pre-results.

Keywords: Kidskin; cohort; intervention; myopia; refractive error; sun exposure.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Australia
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Environment
  • Eye*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Behavior*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Melanoma / etiology
  • Melanoma / prevention & control
  • Myopia* / prevention & control
  • Research Design
  • Sunburn / prevention & control
  • Sunlight* / adverse effects
  • Time Factors
  • Vitamin D


  • Vitamin D

Associated data

  • ANZCTR/ACTRN12616000812392