The effects of sodium butyrate and inulin supplementation on angiotensin signaling pathway via promotion of Akkermansia muciniphila abundance in type 2 diabetes; A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2017;9(4):183-190. doi: 10.15171/jcvtr.2017.32. Epub 2017 Nov 25.


Introduction: Inflammation has a crucial role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as an inflammatory marker induces angiotensin II (Ang II) related hypertension pathway in diabetic patients. Gut modulation via prebiotics may ameliorate hypertension caused by inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sodium butyrate (NaBut) and inulin supplements on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In this clinical trial, 60 overweight and obese diabetic patients were recruited and randomly allocated into four groups. The groups received, respectively, 600 mg/d NaBut (group A), 10 g/d inulin powder (group B), both inulin and NaBut (group C), or placebo (group D) for 45 consecutive days. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and after intervention. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Akkermansia muciniphila was done. We assessed the TNF-α mRNA expression and the serum levels of the high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Results: There was a significant increase in A. muciniphila percent change in inulin and butyrate supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, significant decrease was seen in TNF-α mRNA expression in group A (fold change 0.88 ± 0.16, P< 0.05), group B (fold change 0.75 ± 0.18, P < 0.05) and group C (fold change 0.91 ± 0.32, P < 0.05). Also hs-CRP, MDA and diastolic blood pressure levels decreased significantly in these groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Intervention had significant effects on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters and led to improvement of hypertension. However, further investigations are needed to make concise conclusions.

Keywords: Akkermansia muciniphila; Angiotensin Signaling Pathway; Diabetes; Inulin; Sodium Butyrate; TNF-α.