Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives

Nutrients. 2018 Feb 2;10(2):171. doi: 10.3390/nu10020171.


Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day). The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records.

Keywords: 24 h urine; calcium intake; food sources phosphorus; human intervention study; phosphorus intake; weighed dietary record.

MeSH terms

  • Calcium / urine*
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Diet Records
  • Diet Surveys*
  • Food / classification*
  • Food Analysis*
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Phosphorus / urine*
  • Phosphorus, Dietary / administration & dosage*


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Phosphorus, Dietary
  • Phosphorus
  • Calcium