Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) broadly describes the expansion of a clonal population of blood cells with one or more somatic mutations. Individuals with CH are at greater risk for hematological malignancies, cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality from non-hematological cancers. Understanding the causes of CH and how these mutant cells interact with cells of other tissues will provide critical insights into preleukemic development, stem cell biology, host-immune interactions, and cancer evolution. Here we discuss the clinical manifestations of CH, mechanisms contributing to its development, the role of CH in clonal evolution toward leukemia, and the contribution of CH to non-hematological disease states.
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