The successful completion of cytokinesis requires the coordinated activities of diverse cellular components including membranes, cytoskeletal elements and chromosomes that together form partly redundant pathways, depending on the cell type. The biochemical analysis of this process is challenging due to its dynamic and rapid nature. Here, we systematically compared monopolar and bipolar cytokinesis and demonstrated that monopolar cytokinesis is a good surrogate for cytokinesis and it is a well-suited system for global biochemical analysis in mammalian cells. Based on this, we established a phosphoproteomic signature of cytokinesis. More than 10,000 phosphorylation sites were systematically monitored; around 800 of those were up-regulated during cytokinesis. Reconstructing the kinase-substrate interaction network revealed 31 potentially active kinases during cytokinesis. The kinase-substrate network connects proteins between cytoskeleton, membrane and cell cycle machinery. We also found consensus motifs of phosphorylation sites that can serve as biochemical markers specific to cytokinesis. Beyond the kinase-substrate network, our reconstructed signaling network suggests that combination of sumoylation and phosphorylation may regulate monopolar cytokinesis specific signaling pathways. Our analysis provides a systematic approach to the comparison of different cytokinesis types to reveal alternative ways and a global overview, in which conserved genes work together and organize chromatin and cytoplasm during cytokinesis.