Objectives: To study the effects of repeated, infancy-onset dietary counseling on a detailed metabolic profile. Effects of dietary saturated fat replacement on circulating concentrations of metabolic biomarkers still remain unknown.
Study design: The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) study is a longitudinal, randomized atherosclerosis prevention trial in which repeated dietary counseling aimed at reducing the proportion of saturated fat intake. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics quantified circulating metabolites from serum samples assessed at age 9 (n = 554), 11 (n = 553), 13 (n = 508), 15 (n = 517), 17 (n = 457), and 19 (n = 417) years.
Results: The intervention reduced dietary intake of saturated fat (mean difference in daily percentage of total energy intake: -2.1 [95% CI -1.9 to -2.3]) and increased intake of polyunsaturated fat (0.6 [0.5-0.7]). The dietary counseling intervention led to greater serum proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (P < .001), with greater proportions of both circulating omega-3 (P = .02) and omega-6 (P < .001) fatty acids. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in serum was lower for both boys and girls in the intervention group (P < .001), whereas the serum proportion of monounsaturated fat was lower for boys in the intervention group only (P < .001). The intervention also reduced circulating intermediate-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein lipid concentrations (P < .01). Dietary intervention effects on nonlipid biomarkers were minor except from greater concentrations of glutamine in the intervention group.
Conclusions: Repeated dietary counseling from infancy to early adulthood yielded favorable effects on multiple circulating fatty acids and lipoprotein subclass lipids, particularly in boys. These molecular effects substantiate the beneficial role of saturated fat replacement on the metabolic risk profile.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00223600.
Keywords: diet; fatty acids; metabolic profiling; metabolomics; primordial prevention.
Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.