Background/objectives: One of the mechanisms considered to be prevalent in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is hyper-stimulation of microglia. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocapa L.) is widely used to treat diabetes and atherosclerosis, and is known to exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; however, its neuroprotective effects have not been elucidated thus far.
Materials/methods: We undertook to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract of black chokeberry friut (BCE) in BV2 cells, and evaluate its neuroprotective effect in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model of AD.
Results: Following stimulation of BV2 cells by LPS, exposure to BCE significantly reduced the generation of nitric oxide as well as mRNA levels of numerous inflammatory factors such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, AD was induced in a mouse model by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (250 µg/kg), subsequent to which we investigated the neuroprotective effects of BCE (50 mg/kg) on brain damage. We observed that BCE significantly reduced tissue damage in the hippocampus by downregulating iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α levels. We further identified the quinic acids in BCE using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). Furthermore, we confirmed the neuroprotective effect of BCE and quinic acid on amyloid beta-induced cell death in rat hippocampal primary neurons.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that black chokeberry has protective effects against the development of AD.
Keywords: Phytochemicals; inflammation; microglia; neurons; quinic acid.