Background: We describe intraoperative and postdischarge outcomes of a case series after the prophylactic use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) during elective cesarean delivery in pregnant women with morbidly adherent placenta (MAP). We furthermore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the safety and effectiveness of the use of REBOA during elective cesarean delivery in pregnant women with MAP.
Methods: Descriptive case series of REBOA (December 2015 to June 2017) used during elective cesarean delivery in pregnant women with MAP. The systematic review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. We included studies involving pregnant women with a diagnosis of MAP who underwent an elective cesarean delivery with prophylactic REBOA placement. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the overall amount of transfusions and intraoperative hemorrhage of REBOA compared to NO-REBOA cases.
Results: A total of 12 patients with MAP underwent elective cesarean delivery with REBOA deployment. The median (interquartile range) of packed red blood cells transfused during the first 24 hours following surgery was two units (0-3.5). The median (interquartile range) of intraoperative blood loss was 1,500 mL (900-2,750). At 28 days, all patients were alive, and no adverse outcomes were observed. Four articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. These articles included a total of 441 patients. Quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis) found that the use of REBOA as prophylaxis for the prevention of major hemorrhage was associated with a lower amount of intraoperative hemorrhage (in milliliters) (weighted mean difference, -1,384.66; 95% confidence interval, -2,141.74 to -627.58) and lower requirements of blood products transfusions (in units) (weighted mean difference, -2.42; 95% confidence interval, -3.90 to -0.94).
Conclusion: We provide clinical data supporting the use of REBOA in the management of pregnant women with MAP undergoing elective cesarean delivery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of REBOA as a prophylactic intervention to improve outcomes in women at risk of catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage.
Level of evidence: Therapeutic study, level V; Systematic Review, level IV.