TFL1-Like Proteins in Rice Antagonize Rice FT-Like Protein in Inflorescence Development by Competition for Complex Formation with 14-3-3 and FD

Plant Cell Physiol. 2018 Mar 1;59(3):458-468. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcy021.


Hd3a, a rice homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), is a florigen that induces flowering. Hd3a forms a ternary 'florigen activation complex' (FAC) with 14-3-3 protein and OsFD1 transcription factor, a rice homolog of FD that induces transcription of OsMADS15, a rice homolog of APETALA1 (AP1), which leads to flowering. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) represses flowering and controls inflorescence architecture. However, the molecular basis for floral repression by TFL1 remains poorly understood. Here we show that RICE CENTRORADIALIS (RCN), rice TFL1-like proteins, compete with Hd3a for 14-3-3 binding. All four RCN genes are predominantly expressed in the vasculature, and RCN proteins are transported to the shoot apex to antagonize florigen activity and regulate inflorescence development. The antagonistic function of RCN to Hd3a is dependent on its 14-3-3 binding activity. Our results suggest a molecular basis for regulation of the balance between florigen FT and anti-florigen TFL1.

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins / metabolism*
  • Florigen / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / drug effects
  • Genes, Plant
  • Inflorescence / drug effects
  • Inflorescence / growth & development*
  • Inflorescence / metabolism*
  • Meristem / drug effects
  • Meristem / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Organ Specificity / genetics
  • Oryza / drug effects
  • Oryza / genetics
  • Oryza / growth & development*
  • Oryza / metabolism*
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Protein Binding / drug effects


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Florigen
  • Plant Proteins