We investigate surface modes in plasmonic Bragg fibers composed of nanostructured coaxial cylindrical metal-dielectric multilayers. We demonstrate that the existence of surface modes is determined by the sign of the spatially averaged permittivity of the plasmonic Bragg fiber, ε¯. Specifically, localized surface modes occur at the interface between the cylindrical core with ε¯<0 and the outermost uniform dielectric medium, which is similar to the topologically protected plasmonic surface modes at the interface between two different one-dimensional planar metal-dielectric lattices with opposite signs of the averaged permittivity. Moreover, when increasing the number of dielectric-metal rings, the propagation constant of surface modes with different azimuthal mode numbers is approaching that of surface plasmon polaritons formed at the corresponding planar metal/dielectric interface. Robustness of such surface modes of plasmonic Bragg fibers is demonstrated as well.