Prior to the 21st century, genetic mechanisms that regulate sleep were largely unknown. In 1998, de Lecea et al.  (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1998; 95:322-327) and Sakurai et al.  (Cell 1998; 92: 573-585) reported the discovery of a gene they named hypocretin and orexin, respectively, which led to a revolution in our understanding of genetic and neuronal mechanisms that regulate sleep.
Keywords: arousal; hypocretin; orexin; sleep.
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