Neonatal diabetes mellitus is likely to be due to an underlying monogenic defect when it occurs at less than 6 months of age. Early recognition and urgent genetic testing are important for predicting the clinical course and raising awareness of possible additional features. Early treatment of sulfonylurea-responsive types of neonatal diabetes may improve neurologic outcomes. It is important to distinguish neonatal diabetes mellitus from other causes of hyperglycemia in newborns. Other causes include infection, stress, inadequate pancreatic insulin production in preterm infants, among others. This review explores the diagnostic approach, mutation types, management, and clinical course of neonatal diabetes.
Keywords: Genetic; Glyburide; Insulin; Monogenic diabetes; Neonatal diabetes.
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