Urologic emergencies can involve the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, penis, scrotum, or testicles. History and physical examination are essential to diagnosis, whereas imaging is increasingly used to confirm diagnoses. Acute urinary retention should be relieved with Foley placement. Penile emergencies include paraphimosis, which can be treated by foreskin reduction, whereas penile fracture and priapism require urologic intervention. Fournier gangrene and testicular torsion are scrotal emergencies requiring emergent surgery. Nephrolithiasis, although painful, is not an emergency unless there is concern for concomitant urinary tract infection, both ureters are obstructed by stones, or there is an obstructing stone in a solitary kidney.
Keywords: Acute urinary retention; Fournier gangrene; Infected nephrolithiasis; Paraphimosis; Penile fracture; Priapism; Testicular torsion; Urologic emergencies.
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