Failure to Predict High-risk Kawasaki Disease Patients in a Population-based Study Cohort in Germany

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Sep;37(9):850-855. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001923.


Background: Diverse scores on high-risk Kawasaki disease (KD) patients have proven a good prognostic validity in the Japanese population. However, data on non-Japanese have been inconclusive. Do the Kobayashi, Egami and Sano scores or application of up-to-date statistical methods (Random Forest) predict response to standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy and the risk of persistent coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) in patients with KD in a mainly Caucasian population in Germany?

Methods: Data on 442 children (German population-based survey, 2013 and 2014) were used to assess the prognostic validity of the Kobayashi, Egami and Sano scores for being refractory to IVIG treatment and for predicting the risk of persistent CAA. Additionally, an up-to-date statistical approach (Random Forest) was applied to identify a potentially more valid score.

Results: A total of 301 children were eligible for assessment of their response to IVIG treatment. Among those, 177 children were followed-up for 1 year to identify persistent CAA. Although all scores were significantly associated with being refractory to IVIG (relative risk range between 2.32 and 3.73), the prognostic properties were low (likelihood ratio positive: 1.83-4.57; sensitivity in the range of 0.28-0.53). None of the scores was a significant predictor of CAA 1 year after acute illness. Application of statistical analysis such as Random Forest did not yield a more valid score.

Conclusions: None of the available scores appears to be appropriate for identifying high-risk Caucasian children with KD who might need intensified therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Coronary Aneurysm / etiology
  • Coronary Aneurysm / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / administration & dosage
  • Immunologic Factors / administration & dosage
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome / complications
  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Whites


  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
  • Immunologic Factors