Effects of processing method and age of leaves on phytochemical profiles and bioactivity of coffee leaves

Food Chem. 2018 May 30;249:143-153. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.12.073. Epub 2017 Dec 21.


The use of coffee leaves as a novel beverage has recently received consumer interest, but there is little known about how processing methods affect the quality of final product. We applied tea (white, green, oolong and black tea) processing methods to process coffee leaves and then investigated their effects on phytochemical composition and related antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using Japanese-style green tea-processing of young leaves, and black tea-processing of mature (BTP-M) coffee leaves, produced contrasting effects on phenolic content, and associated antioxidant activity and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity in IFN-γ and LPS induced Raw 264.7 cells. BTP-M coffee leaves also had significantly (P < .05) higher responses in NO, iNOS, COX-2, as well as a number of cytokines, in non-induced Raw 264.7. Our findings show that the age of coffee leaves and the type of processing method affect phytochemical profiles sufficiently to produce characteristic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords: 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA) (PubChem CID: 5281780); 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA) (PubChem CID: 6474310); 3-Caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA) (PubChem CID: 1794427); 5-Caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) (PubChem CID: 5280633); Anti-inflammation; Antioxidant; Caffeine (PubChem CID: 2519); Coffee leaf; Cytokines; Isomangiferin (PubChem CID: 5318597); Mangiferin (PubChem CID: 5281647); Nitric oxide; Nitric oxide (PubChem CID: 145068); Phenolics; Raw 264.7 cell; Rutin (PubChem CID: 5280805); Trigonelline (PubChem CID: 5570).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Camellia sinensis / chemistry
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Coffea / chemistry*
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Mice
  • Nitric Oxide / immunology
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Phenols / pharmacology
  • Phytochemicals / chemistry*
  • Phytochemicals / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry*
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • Tea / chemistry
  • Time Factors


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Cytokines
  • Phenols
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tea
  • Nitric Oxide