Skeletal muscle tissue retains a remarkable regenerative capacity due to the activation of resident stem cells that in pathological conditions or after tissue damage proliferate and commit themselves into myoblasts. These immature myogenic cells undergo differentiation to generate new myofibers or repair the injured ones, giving a strong contribution to muscle regeneration. Cytokines and growth factors, potently released after tissue injury by leukocytes and macrophages, are not only responsible of the induction of the initial inflammatory response, but can also affect skeletal muscle regeneration. Growth factors exploit sphingosine kinase (SK), the enzyme that catalyzes the production of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), to exert their biological effects in skeletal muscle. In this paper we show for the first time that bradykinin (BK), the leading member of kinin/kallikrein system, is able to induce myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. Moreover, evidence is provided that SK1, the specific S1P-transporter spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) and S1P2 receptor are involved in the action exerted by BK, since pharmacological inhibition/antagonism or specific down-regulation significantly alter BK-induced myogenic differentiation. Moreover, the molecular mechanism initiated by BK involves a rapid translocation of SK1 to plasma membrane, analyzed by time-lapse immunofluorescence analysis. The present study highlights the role of SK1/Spns2/S1P receptor 2 signaling axis in BK-induced myogenic differentiation, thus confirming the crucial involvement of this pathway in skeletal muscle cell biology.
Keywords: Bradykinin; Myogenic differentiation; Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2; Sphingosine kinase; Spinster homolog 2.
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