Diagnostic and therapeutic injections of the foot and ankle-An overview

Foot Ankle Surg. 2018 Apr;24(2):99-106. doi: 10.1016/j.fas.2017.02.001. Epub 2017 Feb 14.


Foot and ankle injections are useful diagnostic and therapeutic tools, particularly when the pain etiology is uncertain. A variety of foot and ankle injuries and pathologies, including degenerative joint disease, plantar fasciitis and different tendinopathies are amenable to injections. Understanding the foot and ankle anatomical landmarks, a thorough physical exam and knowledge of the different injection techniques is key for a successful approach to different pathologies. The objective of this study is to review the use of foot and ankle injections in the orthopaedic literature, present the readers with the senior author's experience and provide a comprehensive clinical guideline to the most common foot and ankle diagnostic and therapeutic injections.

Keywords: Corticosteroid injections; Diagnostic injections; Injections of the foot and ankle; Therapeutic injections.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage
  • Ankle Joint*
  • Ankle*
  • Foot Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Foot Diseases / drug therapy
  • Foot Diseases / therapy*
  • Foot*
  • Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Injections / methods*
  • Pain / etiology
  • Pain Management


  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Glucocorticoids