Studying interaction of IgG with bacterial proteins such as proA (Protein A) and proG is essential for development in the areas of drug discovery and biotechnology. Some solution studies in the past have hinted at the possibility of variable binding ratios for IgG with proA and proG. Since earlier crystallographic studies focussed mostly on monomeric complexes, the knowledge about the binding interfaces and protein conformational changes involved in multimeric complexes is scarce. In this paper, we observed that single proA molecule was able to bind to three IgG molecules (1:3, proA:IgG) in ITC accentuating the presence of conformational flexibility in proA, corroborated also by CD results. By contrast, proG binds with 1:1 stoichiometry to IgG, which also involves key structural rearrangement within the binding interface of IgG-proG complex, confirmed by fluorescence KI quenching study. It is implicit from CD and fluorescence results that IgG does not undergo any significant conformational changes, which further suggests that proA and proG dictate the phenomenon of recognition in antibody complexes. ANS as a hydrophobic probe helped in revealing the distinctive antibody binding mechanism of proA and proG. Additionally, the binding competition experiments using ITC established that proA and proG cannot bind IgG concurrently.
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