Subcellular fine-tuning of the actomyosin cytoskeleton is a prerequisite for polarized cell migration. We identify LSP (lymphocyte-specific protein) 1 as a critical regulator of actomyosin contractility in primary macrophages. LSP1 regulates adhesion and migration, including the parameters cell area and speed, and also podosome turnover, oscillation and protrusive force. LSP1 recruits myosin IIA and its regulators, including myosin light chain kinase and calmodulin, and competes with supervillin, a myosin hyperactivator, for myosin regulators, and for actin isoforms, notably β-actin. Actin isoforms are anisotropically distributed in myosin IIA-expressing macrophages, and contribute to the differential recruitment of LSP1 and supervillin, thus enabling an actomyosin symmetry break, analogous to the situation in cells expressing two myosin II isoforms. Collectively, these results show that the cellular pattern of actin isoforms builds the basis for the differential distribution of two actomyosin machineries with distinct properties, leading to the establishment of discrete zones of actomyosin contractility.