Senescence is one of the hallmarks of aging and identified as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. Senescent cells accumulate with age in a variety of human tissues where they develop a complex senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP in brain could contribute to age-related inflammation and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. We confirmed that senescent astrocytes express a characteristic of SASP in vitro by human cytokine antibody array. Ginsenoside F1 suppresses the SASP from astrocytes induced by d-galactose via suppressing p38MAPK-dependent NF-κB activity. A specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, SB203580 significantly decreased the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, the major components of SASPs. Additionally, treatment of senescent astrocytes with NF-κB inhibitor, BAY 11-7092, also suppressed the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, suggesting NF-κB was required for SASP. Importantly, conditioned media from senescent astrocytes promoted the migration of glioblastoma cells, such as U373-MG, U251-MG and U87-MG assessed by scratch wound healing. This migration was significantly decreased by F1 treatment in senescent astrocytes. Interestingly, IL-8, the main mediator regulating glioblastoma cell invasion, was suppressed in both transcriptional and protein level. Herein, we propose ginsenoside F1 as a potential therapeutic strategy for reducing the deleterious contribution of senescent astrocytes in aged brain and related diseases.
Keywords: Astrocytic senescent; Ginsenoside F1; Glioblastoma; NF-κB; SASP; p38MAPK.
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