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, 15 (5), 253-261

Porcine Response to a Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Enterica Serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- Outbreak Isolate


Porcine Response to a Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Enterica Serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- Outbreak Isolate

Daniel C Shippy et al. Foodborne Pathog Dis.


Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- has emerged as a common nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar to cause human foodborne illness. An interesting trait of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- is that it only expresses the fliC gene for bacterial motility (i.e., monophasic), while most Salmonella strains alternately express two flagellin genes (fliC and fljB). The goal of this study was to characterize the porcine response following inoculation with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- isolate associated with a multistate pork outbreak to determine if the increased prevalence of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- in swine is due to enhanced pathogenicity. Pigs were inoculated and subsequently evaluated for the ability of the isolate to colonize intestinal tissues, cause clinical symptoms, induce an immune response, and alter the fecal microbiota over a 7-day period. Pigs exhibited a significant increase in rectal temperature (fever) (p < 0.01) and fecal moisture content (diarrhea) (p < 0.05) at 2 days postinoculation (d.p.i.) compared with preinoculation (day 0). Serum analyses revealed significantly increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels at 2 (p ≤ 0.0001) and 3 (p < 0.01) d.p.i. compared with day 0, and antibodies against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were present in all pigs by 7 d.p.i. Serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- colonized porcine intestinal tissues and was shed in the feces throughout the 7-day study. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the fecal microbiota was significantly altered following MDR serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- inoculation, with the largest shift observed between 0 and 7 d.p.i. Our data indicate that the pork outbreak-associated MDR serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- isolate induced transient clinical disease in swine and perturbed the gastrointestinal microbial community. The porcine response to MDR serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- is similar to previous studies with virulent biphasic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, suggesting that the absence of fljB does not substantially alter acute colonization or pathogenesis in pigs.

Keywords: microbiota; multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:-; pathogenicity; pork outbreak isolate; swine.

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