Background: Anti-angiogenic therapy is known to induce a greater degree of hypoxia, including in glioblastoma (GBM). Evofosfamide (Evo) is a hypoxia-activated prodrug which is reduced, leading to the release of the alkylating agent bromo-isophosphoramide mustard. We assessed the safety, tolerability, preliminary efficacy, and biomarkers of Evo plus bevacizumab (Bev) in Bev-refractory GBM.
Methods: Twenty-eight patients with Bev-refractory GBM were enrolled in a dose escalation study receiving from 240 mg/m2 (cohort 1) to 670 mg/m2 (cohort 4) of Evo every 2 weeks in combination with Bev. Patients deemed surgical candidates underwent a single dose of Evo or placebo with pimonidazole immediately prior to surgery for biomarker evaluation, followed by dose escalation upon recovery. Assessments included adverse events, response, and survival.
Results: Evo plus Bev was well tolerated up to and including the maximum dose of 670 mg/m2, which was determined to be the recommended phase II dose. Overall response rate was 17.4%, with disease control (complete response, partial response, and stable disease) observed in 14 (60.9%) of the 23 patients. The ratio of enhancement to non-enhancement was significant on log-rank analysis with time to progression (P = 0.023), with patients having a ratio of less than 0.37 showing a median progression-free survival of 98 days versus 56 days for those with more enhancement.
Conclusions: Evo plus Bev was well tolerated in patients with Bev-refractory GBM, with preliminary evidence of activity that merits further investigation.