Purpose: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignancy preceding multiple myeloma (MM) or related disorders. In MGUS, renal impairment caused by deposition of the monoclonal immunoglobulins or free light-chains monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. We analysed the prevalence of renal impairment, clinical features and the long-term outcome in 2935 patients with MGUS.
Methods: Between 1/2000 and 8/2016, 2935 adult patients with MGUS were identified in our database.
Results: In 44/2935 (1.5%) patients MGRS was diagnosed. In MGRS patients, significantly more progressions to MM were observed than in MGUS patients (18% vs. 3%; P<0.001). MGRS patients showed a higher risk for progression (HR 3.3 [1.5-7.4]) in the Cox model. Median time to progression was 23 years for MGUS and 18.8 years for MGRS patients. Corresponding progression rate was 8.8 [7.2-10.7] per 1000 patient-years (py) for MGUS patients and 30.6 [15.3-61] for the MGRS group. Risk for progression within the first year after diagnosis was 1% [0.6-1.4] in the MGUS group and 10% [4-29] among MGRS patients.
Conclusion: The significantly higher risk for progression to MM means MGRS patients should be monitored carefully and treated in a specialized centre.
Keywords: MGRS; MGUS; monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance; monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance; multiple myeloma.