Purpose: Sagittal spinal deformity (SSD) patients utilize pelvic tilt (PT) and their lower extremities in order to compensate for malalignment. This study examines the effect of hip osteoarthritis (OA) on compensatory mechanisms in SSD patients.
Methods: Patients ≥ 18 years with SSD were included for analysis. Spinopelvic, lower extremity, and cervical alignment were assessed on standing full-body stereoradiographs. Hip OA severity was graded by Kellgren-Lawrence scale (0-4). Patients were categorized as limited osteoarthritis (LOA: grade 0-2) and severe osteoarthritis (SOA: grade 3-4). Patients were matched for age and T1-pelvic angle (TPA). Spinopelvic [sagittal vertical axis (SVA), T1-pelvic angle, thoracic kyphosis (TK), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL), T1-spinopelvic inclination (T1SPi)] and lower extremity parameters [sacrofemoral angle, knee angle, ankle angle, posterior pelvic shift (P. Shift), global sagittal axis (GSA)] were compared between groups using independent sample t test.
Results: 136 patients (LOA = 68, SOA = 68) were included in the study. SOA had less pelvic tilt (p = 0.011), thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.007), and higher SVA and T1Spi (p < 0.001) than LOA. SOA had lower sacrofemoral angle (p < 0.001) and ankle angle (p = 0.043), increased P. Shift (p < 0.001) and increased GSA (p < 0.001) compared to LOA. There were no differences in PI-LL, LL, knee angle, or cervical alignment (p > 0.05).
Conclusions: Patients with coexisting spinal malalignment and SOA compensate by pelvic shift and thoracic hypokyphosis rather than PT, likely as a result of limited hip extension secondary to SOA. As a result, SOA had worse global sagittal alignment than their LOA counterparts. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
Keywords: Compensatory mechanisms; Global sagittal alignment; Hip osteoarthritis; Hip-spine syndrome; Lower extremities; Sagittal spinal deformity.