The effects of Internet-based exercise compared with supervised group exercise in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study

Clin Rehabil. 2018 Jun;32(6):799-810. doi: 10.1177/0269215518757052. Epub 2018 Feb 8.


Objectives: To compare the effects of Internet-based exercise on glycaemic control, blood lipids, body composition, physical activity level, functional capacity, and quality of life with supervised group exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Design: Single-blind, randomized controlled study.

Setting: A Faculty of Health Sciences.

Subjects: A total of 65 patients with type 2 diabetes (47 women, 18 men).

Intervention: Group A ( n = 22), control group - physical activity counselling once with a brochure. Group B ( n = 22), supervised group-based exercise, three days per week for eight weeks. Group C ( n = 21), Internet-based exercise following the same programme via a website.

Main measures: Primary outcomes - glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and cholesterol. Secondary outcomes - waist and hip circumferences, body mass index, number of steps, six-minute walking test, and Euro-Quality of Life-5 Dimension.

Results: After treatment, glycaemic control (mean change for Group B; Group C; -0.80%, -0.91%, P = 0.003), waist circumference (-4.23 cm, 5.64 cm, P = 0.006), and quality of life (0.26, 0.15, P = 0.013) significantly improved in both training groups compared with the control group. Fasting blood glucose (-46.86 mg/dL, P = 0.009) and hip circumference (-2.7 cm, P = 0.011) were significantly decreased in Group B and total cholesterol (-16.4 mg/dL, P = 0.028), six-minute walking distance (30.5 m, P = 0.01), and number of steps (1258.05, P = 0.023) significantly improved in Group C compared with control group. Group B and Group C changed with equal magnitude.

Conclusion: In type 2 diabetes, supervised group-based and Internet-based exercise can improve equally glycaemic control, waist circumference, and quality of life, and both are better than simply counselling.

Keywords: Internet-based exercise; Type 2 diabetes; glycaemic control; group exercise; rehabilitation.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Exercise*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Group Processes*
  • Humans
  • Internet*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Quality of Life
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Waist Circumference
  • Walk Test


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human