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. 2018 Jan 2;14(1):46-63.
doi: 10.1080/15476278.2017.1421882. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Embryonic Skin Development and Repair

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Free PMC article

Embryonic Skin Development and Repair

Michael S Hu et al. Organogenesis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Fetal cutaneous wounds have the unique ability to completely regenerate wounded skin and heal without scarring. However, adult cutaneous wounds heal via a fibroproliferative response which results in the formation of a scar. Understanding the mechanism(s) of scarless wound healing leads to enormous clinical potential in facilitating an environment conducive to scarless healing in adult cutaneous wounds. This article reviews the embryonic development of the skin and outlines the structural and functional differences in adult and fetal wound healing phenotypes. A review of current developments made towards applying this clinical knowledge to promote scarless healing in adult wounds is addressed.

Keywords: cutaneous; embryogenesis; fetal wound healing; regeneration; scarless; scarring; wound healing.

Figures

FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 1.
The layers of the human adult epidermis, a stratified squamous epithelium.
FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 2.
Gastrulation and the formation of 3 distinct germ cell layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
FIGURE 3.
FIGURE 3.
Stages of embryonic epidermal development. Adapted from Forni et al.
FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 4.
The 8 stages of hair development. IRS = inner root sheath, ORS = outer root sheath, SG = sebaceous gland.

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