l-Carnosine supplementation attenuated fasting glucose, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

Nutr Res. 2018 Jan;49:96-106. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2017.11.003. Epub 2017 Nov 17.


Considering the pathologic importance of metabolic disturbances, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and chronic inflammation in diabetes mellitus and ameliorating potentials of l-carnosine in hampering these detritions and because these effects have not been investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) so far, we conducted the current study. We hypothesized that l-carnosine would improve glycemic control, lipid profile, AGE, soluble receptor of AGEs (sRAGE), and inflammatory markers. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 54 patients with T2D were recruited and assigned into either intervention group (n=27, receiving 2 capsules of l-carnosine 500 mg each) or control group (n=27). Blood samples and dietary intakes information were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. l-Carnosine supplementation resulted in significant decrease in fat mass and an increase in fat-free mass in the intervention group compared with the placebo group (1.5% and 1.7%, respectively) (P<.05). A significant reduction in fasting blood glucose (13.1 mg/dL); glycated hemoglobin (.6%); and serum levels of triglycerides (29.8 mg/dL), carboxymethyl lysine (91.8 ng/mL), and tumor necrosis factor-α was detected in the l-carnosine group compared with the placebo group (P<.05). In the l-carnosine group, a significant reduction in serum pentosidine levels (2.8 ng/mL) was observed compared with those at baseline (P<.05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and secretion, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, sRAGE, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β levels between the groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P>.05). Collectively, l-carnosine lowered fasting glucose, serum levels of triglycerides, AGEs, and tumor necrosis factor-α without changing sRAGE, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in T2D patients.

Keywords: Age; Glycemic status; Inflammation; Lipid profile; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; l-Carnosine.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / drug effects
  • Adult
  • Arginine / analogs & derivatives
  • Arginine / blood
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Body Composition / drug effects
  • Carnosine / pharmacology*
  • Carnosine / therapeutic use
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism*
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / blood*
  • Humans
  • Lysine / analogs & derivatives
  • Lysine / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Triglycerides / blood*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Triglycerides
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Carnosine
  • Arginine
  • pentosidine
  • Lysine