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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2018 Feb 9;10(2):189.
doi: 10.3390/nu10020189.

A Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

A Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial

Hana Kahleova et al. Nutrients. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to test the effect of a plant-based dietary intervention on beta-cell function in overweight adults with no history of diabetes. Participants (n = 75) were randomized to follow a low-fat plant-based diet (n = 38) or to make no diet changes (n = 37) for 16 weeks. At baseline and 16 weeks, beta-cell function was quantified with a mathematical model. Using a standard meal test, insulin secretory rate was calculated by C-peptide deconvolution. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index was used to assess insulin resistance while fasting. A marked increase in meal-stimulated insulin secretion was observed in the intervention group compared with controls (interaction between group and time, Gxt, p < 0.001). HOMA-IR index fell significantly (p < 0.001) in the intervention group (treatment effect -1.0 (95% CI, -1.2 to -0.8); Gxt, p = 0.004). Changes in HOMA-IR correlated positively with changes in body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat volume (r = 0.34; p = 0.009 and r = 0.42; p = 0.001, respectively). The latter remained significant after adjustment for changes in BMI (r = 0.41; p = 0.002). Changes in glucose-induced insulin secretion correlated negatively with BMI changes (r = -0.25; p = 0.04), but not with changes in visceral fat. Beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were significantly improved through a low-fat plant-based diet in overweight adults.

Keywords: beta-cell function; diabetes; diet; nutrition; vegan.

Conflict of interest statement

Hana Kahleova works as the Director of Clinical Research at the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, a nonprofit organization encouraging the use of low-fat, plant-based diets and discouraging the use of animal-derived, fatty, and sugary foods. Barnard has received research funding from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), the National Science Foundation, and the Diabetes Action Research and Education Foundation. He serves without financial compensation as president of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine and Barnard Medical Center, nonprofit organizations providing education, research, and medical care related to nutrition. He writes books and gives lectures related to nutrition and health, and has received royalties and honoraria from these sources. Andrea Tura, Martin Hill and Richard Holubkov declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Enrollment of the participants and completion of the study.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Dose-response insulin secretion in response to different plasma glucose levels. Triangles with the blue line represent the control group (empty triangles and a dashed line at baseline, and full triangles with a full line at 16 weeks), while squares with the red line show data from the intervention group (empty squares with a dashed line at baseline, and full squares with a full line at 16 weeks). Data are given as means with 95% CIs.

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