Efficacy of lacosamide in children and adolescents with drug-resistant epilepsy and refractory status epilepticus: A systematic review

Seizure. 2018 Mar:56:34-40. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.01.014. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Abstract

Purpose: Lacosamide, is one of the newer antiepileptic drug approved for focal drug-resistant epilepsy as an add-on treatment in patients older than 16 years. However, there is growing evidence of its use, safety and efficacy in children. We aim to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of lacosamide in focal and generalized drug-resistant epilepsy and refractory status epilepticus in the pediatric population.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review on MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, Google Scholar and Scielo from January 2008 to January 2017. The primary outcome was the efficacy of lacosamide in children with drug-resistant epilepsy and refractory status epilepticus. Efficacy and adverse events attributed to lacosamide were extracted from each publication and systematically reported. We performed no meta-analyses due to limited available data.

Results: Of 175 abstracts identified by the search, 82 were reviewed as full-text. Twenty-six articles fulfilled eligibility criteria and described outcomes in 797 patients (57% male). The majority of studies were retrospective (69%) small series (84%). On average 51% of patients had 50% or greater seizure reduction. The mean seizure freedom rate was 24%. Adverse effects occurred in 18-59% of patients. The main events were dizziness, sedation, gastrointestinal upset, mood and behavioral changes. Half of the patients with Lennox Gastaut syndrome showed 50% or greater seizure reduction, 32% did not response to lacosamide and 17% suffered seizure aggravation.

Conclusion: Current evidence shows lacosamide as a good option in pediatric patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy and refractory status epilepticus as an add-on therapy given its efficacy on seizure control and safety profile. The use of lacosamide in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome shows conflicting data. Large randomized controlled studies in the pediatric population are necessary to substantiate these findings.

Keywords: Adds-on therapy; Behavior; Efficacy; Refractory epilepsy; Safety; Side effect.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetamides / therapeutic use*
  • Adolescent
  • Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Drug Resistant Epilepsy / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Lacosamide
  • Status Epilepticus / drug therapy*

Substances

  • Acetamides
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Lacosamide