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Review
. 2018 Feb;29(1-2):63-79.
doi: 10.1007/s00335-018-9736-9. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Individual Susceptibility to Arsenic-Induced Diseases: The Role of Host Genetics, Nutritional Status, and the Gut Microbiome

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Free PMC article
Review

Individual Susceptibility to Arsenic-Induced Diseases: The Role of Host Genetics, Nutritional Status, and the Gut Microbiome

Liang Chi et al. Mamm Genome. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Arsenic (As) contamination in water or food is a global issue affecting hundreds of millions of people. Although As is classified as a group 1 carcinogen and is associated with multiple diseases, the individual susceptibility to As-related diseases is highly variable, such that a proportion of people exposed to As have higher risks of developing related disorders. Many factors have been found to be associated with As susceptibility. One of the main sources of the variability found in As susceptibility is the variation in the host genome, namely, polymorphisms of many genes involved in As transportation, biotransformation, oxidative stress response, and DNA repair affect the susceptibility of an individual to As toxicity and then influence the disease outcomes. In addition, lifestyles and many nutritional factors, such as folate, vitamin C, and fruit, have been found to be associated with individual susceptibility to As-related diseases. Recently, the interactions between As exposure and the gut microbiome have been of particular concern. As exposure has been shown to perturb gut microbiome composition, and the gut microbiota has been shown to also influence As metabolism, which raises the question of whether the highly diverse gut microbiota contributes to As susceptibility. Here, we review the literature and summarize the factors, such as host genetics and nutritional status, that influence As susceptibility, and we also present potential mechanisms of how the gut microbiome may influence As metabolism and its toxic effects on the host to induce variations in As susceptibility. Challenges and future directions are also discussed to emphasize the importance of characterizing the specific role of these factors in interindividual susceptibility to As-related diseases.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Three proposed As biotransformation pathways and the one-carbon metabolism pathway in mammalian cells. (AS3MT: arsenic (+3) methyltransferase; GSTO: glutathione-s-transferase omega; DHF: dihydrofolate; THF: tetrahydrofolate; 5,10-methyl-THF: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate; 5-methyl-THF: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate; DHFR: dihydrofolate reductase; SHMT: serine hydroxymethyltransferase; MTHFR: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; MS: methionine synthase; SAM: S-adenosylmethionine; SAH: S-adenosylhomocysteine; MAT: methionine adenyltransferase; CHDH: choline dehydrogenase; BHMT: betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase; SAHH: S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase; CBS: cystathionine β-synthase.)
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
An array of host, microbiome and environmental factors influence As biotransformation and As-induced diseases, which contribute to inter-individual susceptibility to As exposure.

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