Evaluation of Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as a Novel Biomarker of Cardiorenal Syndrome in Dogs

J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018 May;30(3):386-391. doi: 10.1177/1040638718758430. Epub 2018 Feb 11.


Worsening renal function and azotemia in patients with heart failure (HF) are strongly associated with disease severity and poor prognosis. Increasing interest in this correlation led to the description and classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). We evaluated the role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the early detection of CRS in dogs with HF. Ten healthy dogs and 31 dogs admitted with HF were included in our study. NGAL and troponin-I were measured on samples collected on the day of admission; creatinine was measured on admission and again on day 7. The CRS group was defined as subsequently developing renal azotemia. Of 31 dogs with HF, 20 were included in the HF group, and 11 were included in the CRS group. The admission NGAL concentrations of the CRS group were significantly higher than those of other groups ( p < 0.001). The severity of HF evaluation based on the modified New York Heart Association classification showed significant correlation with NGAL ( p < 0.001) and troponin-I ( p = 0.009) concentration. However, only serum NGAL concentration at admission was significantly associated with the development of CRS in dogs with HF ( p = 0.021). The admission serum NGAL ≥ 16.0 ng/mL (optimal cutoff value) had a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 90.0% in predicting the development of CRS.

Keywords: Biomarker; canine; cardiorenal syndrome; heart failure; neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome / veterinary*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Dog Diseases / blood
  • Dog Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Dogs
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / veterinary
  • Female
  • Lipocalin-2 / blood*
  • Male
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Biomarkers
  • Lipocalin-2