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, 6 (5), e2039-e2046
eCollection

Associated Reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate and Anterolateral Ligaments With Single Asymmetric Hamstring Tendons Graft

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Associated Reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate and Anterolateral Ligaments With Single Asymmetric Hamstring Tendons Graft

Alejandro Espejo-Baena et al. Arthrosc Tech.

Abstract

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common disease that accounts for 250,000 cases/year in the United States. The anterolateral ligament (ALL) has been suggested to be an important restraint for rotational instability, and its reconstruction provides a reinforcement to the ACL reconstruction in this aspect, especially in high-demand athletes and in knees with high-grade pivot shift. Different techniques for associated ACL and ALL reconstruction have been described, but the ideal technique remains unclear. Several facts of these techniques may entail a concern to the surgeon, such as the need for several grafts or several bone tunnels. A technique for associated ACL and ALL is presented, using a single hamstring tendons graft, which is prepared asymmetrically, leaving one-third of the length with single diameter and two-thirds with double diameter. A single femoral tunnel is created, using a screw for fixation and differentiation of the grafts. A suspension device is used for tibial fixation, allowing for length adjustment according to the graft's length. The objective of this Technical Note is to provide the orthopaedic surgeon with a resource for ACL and ALL reconstruction even with relatively short grafts, saving bone stock and avoiding the need for allografts.

Figures

Fig 1
Fig 1
Photograph after a standard isolated ACL reconstruction with autologous hamstring tendons on a right knee where a G-Lok XL of 15 mm has been used for femoral fixation and a Biosteon bioabsorbable screw for the tibial one. An almost 6-cm remnant of the graft that would be wasted in other cases can be seen. This remnant is used in this technique for ALL reconstruction by inverting the fixation devices. (ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; ALL, anterolateral ligament.)
Fig 2
Fig 2
Diagram of the technique on a right knee. A suspension device attached to its XL expansion device has been used for tibial fixation, and an interference screw has been employed for the femoral one. The remnant of the graft is used for ALL reconstruction, which is fixed to the tibia with a smaller interference screw. (ALL, anterolateral ligament.)
Fig 3
Fig 3
Patient positioning and landmarks; the patient is positioned supine, with the thigh in a leg holder and the knee flexed 90°. (AM, anteromedial portal; C, central portal. E, epicondyle; FH, fibular head; GT, Gerdy's tubercle; TI, tibial insertion of the ALL.)
Fig 4
Fig 4
(A) Hamstring tendons graft prepared with both ends knotted. The ACL part of the graft (where a double graft is used) must be at least 9 cm long. The arrow points the tibial fixation device (G-Lok 15 mm attached in its XL device). (B) Calibration of ACL and ALL ends of the graft; 9 mm are measured on the ACL part and 6 mm on the ALL one. (ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; ACLG, anterior cruciate ligament end of the graft; ALL, anterolateral ligament; ALLG, anterolateral ligament end of the graft.)
Fig 5
Fig 5
The guide used for tunnel drilling, which can provide up to 80° of opening, is shown. It is opened 55° to create the tibial tunnel for ACL reconstruction and 80° to create the femoral one.
Fig 6
Fig 6
Placement of the guide-pin for femoral tunnel drilling through the approach made on the lateral epicondyle (red arrow), with an outside-in technique (right knee), with the arthroscope set via the anteromedial portal and the guide for ACL reconstruction through the central transtendinous one (black arrow). (ACL, anterior cruciate ligament.)
Fig 7
Fig 7
Placement of the guide-pin for tibial tunnel drilling, with an outside-in technique, using the approach made for hamstring tendon harvesting (right knee) (asterisk), with the arthroscope set via the central transtendinous portal (black arrow) and the guide for ACL reconstruction through the anteromedial one (red arrow). (ACL, anterior cruciate ligament.)
Fig 8
Fig 8
Suspension device (white arrow) (attached in its expansion piece [black arrow]) fixed to the anterior cortex of the tibia for ACL fixation (right knee). (ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; C, central transtendinous portal; M, anteromedial portal.)
Fig 9
Fig 9
Insertion of the interference screw for femoral fixation (right knee). Such a screw provides femoral fixation for both the ACL and the ALL. The remnant of the ACL graft can be seen coming out of the joint (asterisk). (ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; ALL, anterolateral ligament; C, central transtendinous portal; FH, fibular head; G, Gerdy tubercle.)
Fig 10
Fig 10
Placement of the guide-pin used for tibial tunnel drilling for the ALL reconstruction (right knee). The remnant of the ACL graft can be seen coming out of the joint (asterisk). (ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; ALL, anterolateral ligament; C, central transtendinous portal; G, Gerdy tubercle.)
Fig 11
Fig 11
Right knee. (A) The traction threads of the ALL graft is passed in a craniocaudal direction to the distal approach made for the tibial tunnel of the ALL, deep to the fascia lata. (B) The ALL graft can be seen through the approach made for the tibial tunnel of ALL reconstruction. Asterisk: lateral approach over the epicondyle, through which the femoral tunnel is created. (ALL, anterolateral ligament; C, central transtendinous portal; FH, fibular head; G, Gerdy tubercle.)
Fig 12
Fig 12
Traction threads are passed through the eyelet at the bottom of the guide-pin to be passed through the tibial tunnel made for ALL reconstruction (right knee). Asterisk: lateral approach over the epicondyle, through which the femoral tunnel is created. (ALL, anterolateral ligament; C, central transtendinous portal; FH, fibular head; G, Gerdy tubercle.)
Fig 13
Fig 13
Fixation of the tibial end of the ALL graft with a bioabsorbable interference screw (right knee). (ALL, anterolateral ligament; C, central transtendinous portal; E, lateral approach over the epicondyle, through which the femoral tunnel is created; FH, fibular head; G, Gerdy's tubercle.)
Fig 14
Fig 14
Three-dimensional reconstruction of a CT scan performed on a knee operated using the present technique. Asterisk: femoral fixation with bioabsorbable screw; double asterisk: tibial fixation of the anterolateral ligament. (FH, fibular head; G, Gerdy tubercle.)

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