Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Radical Surgery Versus Concomitant Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Patients With Stage IB2, IIA, or IIB Squamous Cervical Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jun 1;36(16):1548-1555. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2017.75.9985. Epub 2018 Feb 12.


Purpose We compared the efficacy and toxicity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery versus standard cisplatin-based chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced squamous cervical cancer. Patients and Methods This was a single-center, phase III, randomized controlled trial ( identifier: NCT00193739). Eligible patients were between 18 and 65 years old and had stage IB2, IIA, or IIB squamous cervical cancer. They were randomly assigned, after stratification by stage, to receive either three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy using paclitaxel and carboplatin once every 3 weeks followed by radical hysterectomy or standard radiotherapy with concomitant cisplatin once every week for 5 weeks. Patients in the neoadjuvant group received postoperative adjuvant radiation or concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, if indicated. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS), defined as survival without relapse or death related to cancer, and secondary end points included overall survival and toxicity. Results Between September 2003 and February 2015, 635 patients were randomly assigned, of whom 633 (316 patients in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery group and 317 patients in the concomitant chemoradiation group) were included in the final analysis, with a median follow-up time of 58.5 months. The 5-year DFS in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery group was 69.3% compared with 76.7% in the concomitant chemoradiation group (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.87; P = .038), whereas the corresponding 5-year OS rates were 75.4% and 74.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.025; 95% CI, 0.752 to 1.398; P = .87). The delayed toxicities at 24 months or later after treatment completion in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery group versus the concomitant chemoradiation group were rectal (2.2% v 3.5%, respectively), bladder (1.6% v 3.5%, respectively), and vaginal (12.0% v 25.6%, respectively). Conclusion Cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiation resulted in superior DFS compared with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery in locally advanced cervical cancer.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Carboplatin / administration & dosage
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy*
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Cisplatin / administration & dosage
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hysterectomy
  • India
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Paclitaxel / administration & dosage
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Carboplatin
  • Paclitaxel
  • Cisplatin

Associated data