Background: Midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is emerging as a prognostic biomarker for detecting the failure of multiple organs. Establishment of scientifically robust reference intervals facilitates interpretation of laboratory test results. The objectives of this study were (i) to establish reliable reference intervals for plasma MR-proADM using a commercially available automated fluoroimmunoassay in apparently healthy individuals, and (ii) to identify biological determinants of MR-proADM concentrations.
Methods: A total of 506 questionnaire-identified apparently healthy adults were enrolled in a single-center, cross-sectional study. A final reference group (n=172) was selected after exclusion of obese individuals, those with increased values of laboratory biomarkers indicating asymptomatic myocardial injury or dysfunction, ongoing inflammation, diabetes, dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction and outliers.
Results: The 2.5th and 97.5th percentile intervals for MR-proADM values in the reference group (90% confidence interval) were 0.21 (0.19-0.23) and 0.57 (0.55-0.59) nmol/L, respectively. Although older age, higher values of HbA1c, C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide and body mass index, together with a history of smoking and a decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate were significantly associated with increasing concentrations of MR-proADM in both univariate and multivariate analyses, magnitudes of these relationships were modest and did not substantially influence MR-proADM reference intervals. Sex-dependent difference in MR-proADM reference intervals was not detected [0.19 (0.16-0.22)-0.56 (0.54-0.60) nmol/L in females vs. 0.22 (0.20-0.25)-0.58 (0.57-0.63) nmol/L in males].
Conclusions: Our study successfully established robust reference intervals for MR-proADM concentrations in plasma. Considering the negligible influence of potential biological determinants on plasma MR-proADM, we recommend the adoption of single reference intervals for adult population as a whole.
Keywords: MR-proADM; proadrenomedullin; reference intervals.