G.I. Pros: Antimicrobial Defense in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2019 Apr;88:129-137. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2018.02.001. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Abstract

The gastrointestinal tract is a complex environment in which the host immune system interacts with a diverse array of microorganisms, both symbiotic and pathogenic. As such, mobilizing a rapid and appropriate antimicrobial response depending on the nature of each stimulus is crucial for maintaining the balance between homeostasis and inflammation in the gut. Here we focus on the mechanisms by which intestinal antimicrobial peptides regulate microbial communities during dysbiosis and infection. We also discuss classes of bacterial peptides that contribute to reducing enteric pathogen outgrowth. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the interplay of diverse antimicrobial responses with enteric pathogens and the gut microbiota.

Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides; Bacteriocins; Enteric pathogens; Microbiota; Microcins; Nutritional immunity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteriocins / biosynthesis
  • Bacteriocins / immunology*
  • Bacteriocins / pharmacology
  • Cathelicidins / biosynthesis
  • Cathelicidins / immunology
  • Cathelicidins / pharmacology
  • Defensins / biosynthesis
  • Defensins / immunology*
  • Defensins / pharmacology
  • Dysbiosis / immunology
  • Dysbiosis / microbiology
  • Dysbiosis / prevention & control*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / immunology
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / drug effects
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / immunology*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / microbiology
  • Gene Expression / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Mucosal / drug effects
  • Inflammation
  • Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology
  • Lipocalin-2 / biosynthesis
  • Lipocalin-2 / immunology
  • Lipocalin-2 / pharmacology
  • Muramidase / biosynthesis
  • Muramidase / immunology
  • Muramidase / pharmacology
  • Symbiosis / immunology

Substances

  • Bacteriocins
  • Cathelicidins
  • Defensins
  • LCN2 protein, human
  • Lipocalin-2
  • Muramidase