Metabolic changes after licorice consumption: A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of clinical trials

Phytomedicine. 2018 Jan 15;39:17-24. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.12.010. Epub 2017 Dec 9.


Background: Licorice, also known as liquorice, refers to the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., a product widely available in the market in the form of licorice flavonoid oil (LFO), which is a concentrate of licorice flavonoids, being a dietary ingredient for functional foods with potential benefits for overweight subjects.

Purpose: To summarize the results of the numerous clinical trials, and to clarify the metabolic changes after licorice consumption, through a systematic review with meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) of clinical trials.

Methods: This review was designed according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) recommendations. Several electronic databases were searched to identify the clinical trials. A meta-analysis approach was then developed to statistically analyze the results, followed by TSA and meta-regression analyses.

Results: A total 26 clinical trials were considered for the quantitative synthesis of the data, totalizing 985 patients enrolled. Overall, it was possible to verify that the licorice consumption significantly reduces the body weight (WMD: -0.433 kg; 95% CI: -0.683 to -0.183; p-value = 0.001) and consequently the body mass index (BMI) of patients (WMD: -0.150 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.241 to -0.058; p-value = 0.001). Another result with statistical significance was the increase in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (1.737 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.835 to 2.621; p-value < 0.0001) observed for the group subjected to licorice consumption, which is related to the hypernatremia also caused by licorice.

Conclusion: The present meta-analysis demonstrated the positive effects of licorice consumption on the reduction of body weight and BMI of patients. However, the results also show the increase in blood pressure of patients associated with the hypernatremia caused by licorice. Consequently, licorice consumption should be avoided by hypertensive patients.

Keywords: Anti-obesity; Hypertension; Licorice; Meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight / drug effects*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diet
  • Flavonoids / adverse effects
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology*
  • Functional Food
  • Glycyrrhiza*
  • Humans
  • Hypernatremia / etiology
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Lipids / blood
  • Overweight / drug therapy


  • Flavonoids
  • Lipids