Background: Even though wound dehiscence is a surgical complication, under certain medical conditions, repetition of the laparotomy (LT) (relaparotomy) can become inevitable. In addition to the risks associated with this surgical operation, relaparotomy can interfere with the tissue healing and contribute to the development of chronic wounds.
Methods: In an experimental relaparotomy wounding model, this study investigated the impact of repeated surgery on wound healing and on the immune cells of myeloid origin.
Results: The first repeat of the LT triggered fibrosis and marginally interfered with the wound healing; however, the second operation completely abrogated the healing process. Splenomegaly was observed as an indicator of the chronic inflammation and the systemic effect of repeated laparotomies. In the blood stream, the spleen, and the liver, these repeated surgeries exhibited a major impact on the CD11b+Ly6C+Ly6G- monocytes. On the other hand, especially, whespecially the second relaparotomy resulted in a massive purging of neutrophil granulocytes into the circulation. These CD11b+Ly6C+Ly6G+ neutrophils that were disseminated on repeated abdominal laparotomies had a proinflammatory character that positively influenced T cell proliferation and displayed a high capacity for production of reactive oxygen species.
Conclusions: The repetition of abdominal LT not only interferes with the wound healing but also contributes to the development of imperfectly healing wounds which have systemic impact on immune compartments.
Keywords: Immune system; Inflammation; Monocyte; Neutrophil; Spleen; Surgery.
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