The detection of campylobacters in stools is performed essentially by culture, but this technique has a low sensitivity. New detection methods are now available. Among them, immunochromatography tests (ICTs) are very attractive in that they offer a result within 15 min. However, previous studies suggest that these tests have a relatively low specificity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of these tests. During the study period, all patients who consulted the emergency units and had a stool culture were included. Their stool samples were tested with two ICTs, Ridaquick Campylobacter and ImmunoCard STAT! Campy. Stools were also tested by a home-made PCR and two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) when one of the ICTs was positive. The composite reference standard (CRS) was defined as positive if the culture was positive or, in case of a negative culture, if the PCR and one of the ELISAs were positive simultaneously. Three hundred and five patients were included. Among the 50 positive specimens with Ridaquick Campylobacter, 47 were considered true positives by the CRS, corresponding to a positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.0%. Among the 52 positive specimens with ImmunoCard STAT! Campy, 44 were considered true positives by the CRS, corresponding to a PPV of 84.6%. The negative predictive values were estimated at 94.9 and 92.4% for the Ridaquick Campylobacter and ImmunoCard STAT! Campy tests, respectively. ICTs appear to be very efficient and allow a very rapid detection of campylobacters, which is important for treating early campylobacter infections with an adapted antibiotherapy.
Keywords: ImmunoCard STAT! Campy; Ridaquick Campylobacter; immunochromatographic tests; rapid campylobacter detection.
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