The present study tested the hypothesis that cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms reveal different abnormalities in cortical neural synchronization in groups of patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLBMCI) as compared to cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects. Clinical and rsEEG data in 30 ADMCI, 23 DLBMCI, and 30 Nold subjects were available in an international archive. Age, gender, and education were carefully matched in the three groups. The Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score was matched between the ADMCI and DLBMCI groups. Individual alpha frequency peak (IAF) was used to determine the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 frequency band ranges. Fixed beta1, beta2, and gamma bands were also considered. eLORETA estimated the rsEEG cortical sources. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROCC) classified these sources across individuals. Compared to Nold, IAF showed marked slowing in DLBMCI and moderate in ADMCI. Furthermore, the posterior alpha 2 and alpha 3 source activities were more abnormal in the ADMCI than the DLBMCI group, while widespread delta source activities were more abnormal in the DLBMCI than the ADMCI group. The posterior delta and alpha sources correlated with the MMSE score and correctly classified the Nold and MCI individuals (area under the ROCC >0.85). In conclusion, the ADMCI and DLBMCI patients showed different features of cortical neural synchronization at delta and alpha frequencies underpinning brain arousal and vigilance in the quiet wakefulness. Future prospective cross-validation studies will have to test the clinical validity of these rsEEG markers.
Keywords: Exact low resolution brain electromagnetic source tomography (eLORETA); mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease; mild cognitive impairment due to dementia with Lewy bodies; receiver operating characteristic curve; resting state electroencephalographic rhythms.