NRF2, DJ1 and SNRX1 and their prognostic impact in astrocytic gliomas

Histol Histopathol. 2018 Aug;33(8):791-801. doi: 10.14670/HH-11-973. Epub 2018 Feb 14.


Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), DJ1 and sulfiredoxin 1 (SRXN1) are transcription factors which protect cells from the oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species and, on the other hand, are associated with resistance to cancer treatments. The immunohistochemical expression of NRF2, DJ1 and SRNX1 was assessed in human grade II-IV astrocytic gliomas. Their association to clinicopathologic and essential molecular factors was evaluated. The RNA expression levels and genetic alterations were analyzed from publicly available datasets. All studied molecules were commonly expressed. The cytoplasmic NRF2 expression was higher in tumors with a higher malignancy grade, whereas the nuclear and cytoplasmic DJ1 expression was associated with a lower grade. The presence of the isocitrate dehyrdogenase 1 mutation (IDH1) was associated with an increasing cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of NRF2 and a nuclear DJ1 expression. When primary grade IV astrocytomas were compared to secondary glioblastomas, nuclear DJ1 was associated with secondary tumors. In grade II-IV tumors, the cytoplasmic NRF2 expression was associated with a poor prognosis, whereas nuclear NRF2 and both cytoplasmic and nuclear DJ1 were associated with a better patient prognosis. Recurrent homozygous deletions of DJ1 were observed, especially in the IDH wild-type samples. When only the glioblastomas were evaluated, nuclear NRF2 and SRNX1 predicted better survival. As a conclusion, NRF2, DJ1 and SNXR1 can be used as prognosticators in gliomas.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Astrocytoma / enzymology*
  • Astrocytoma / genetics
  • Astrocytoma / pathology
  • Astrocytoma / therapy
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Brain Neoplasms / enzymology*
  • Brain Neoplasms / genetics
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • Brain Neoplasms / therapy
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Female
  • Glioblastoma / enzymology*
  • Glioblastoma / genetics
  • Glioblastoma / pathology
  • Glioblastoma / therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / analysis*
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / genetics
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors / analysis*
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors / genetics
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Protein Deglycase DJ-1 / analysis*
  • Protein Deglycase DJ-1 / genetics
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2
  • NFE2L2 protein, human
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • IDH1 protein, human
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors
  • SRXN1 protein, human
  • PARK7 protein, human
  • Protein Deglycase DJ-1