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Review
. 2018 Jul;97(7):742-750.
doi: 10.1177/0022034518756297. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Perineural Invasion in Head and Neck Cancer

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Free PMC article
Review

Perineural Invasion in Head and Neck Cancer

L B Schmitd et al. J Dent Res. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Perineural invasion (PNI) is a mechanism of tumor dissemination that can provide a challenge to tumor eradication and that is correlated with poor survival. Squamous cell carcinoma, the most common type of head and neck cancer, has a high prevalence of PNI. This review provides an overview of clinical studies on the outcomes and factors associated with PNI in head and neck cancer and on findings on cancer-nerve crosstalk.

Keywords: galanin; metastasis; neoplasm recurrence; neurotrophic factors; prognosis; squamous cell carcinoma.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Cross-section of a nerve. The axons and endoneurium are grouped into fascicles by perineurium, which is surrounded by the epineurium, a sheath that wraps the entire nerve.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Different phenotypes meeting the current criteria of perineural invasion.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Galanin secreted by nerves induces GALR2 on SCC cells. SCC-secreted galanin and PGE2 induce neuritogenesis and invasion, respectively. PGE2, prostaglandin E2; PNI, perineural invasion; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma.

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