The Ross-Konno procedure in neonates and infants less than 3 months of age

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2018 Jul 1;54(1):71-77. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezy030.


Objectives: Patients with severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction often suffer from impaired left ventricular function, endocardial fibroelastosis and borderline-sized structures. The early Ross-Konno operation can offer complete repair due to outflow tract stenosis and enable the functional recovery and growth of small structures.

Methods: Between 2008 and March 2017, 44 early Ross-Konno procedures were performed at our centre. Thirty-five patients were neonates, and 9 were infants less than 3 months of age. A retrospective single-centre investigation was carried out analysing early and late deaths, postoperative complications and reoperations during the follow-up period. Potential prognostic influence factors as previous fetal intervention, associated lesions as presence of a VSD or hypoplastic aortic arch or severe endocardial fibroelastosis were examined.

Results: The in-hospital mortality rate was 7% (3 of 44), and the late mortality rate was 2%. There were no deaths in the group with ventricular septal defects (9 cases), and there was 1 death in the group with critical aortic stenosis without arch repair (1 of 24; 4%). The most deaths occurred in patients with critical aortic stenosis and aortic arch repair (3 of 11; 27%) (P = 0.012). Fifteen patients with foetal intervention had a mid-term survival rate of 87%. Reoperations were necessary in 19 of 40 surviving patients during a mean follow-up period of 5.9 years.

Conclusions: The early Ross-Konno procedure can enable biventricular repair even in borderline left ventricles with good long-term outcome. Thus far, there were no reoperations at the level of the autograft or the left ventricular outflow tract in our cohort. The highest operative risk was observed in patients with critical aortic stenosis and aortic arch hypoplasia.

MeSH terms

  • Aorta, Thoracic / abnormalities
  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / congenital
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / surgery
  • Female
  • Fetal Therapies / methods
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Pulmonary Valve / transplantation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Transplantation, Autologous
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures / adverse effects
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Ventricular Outflow Obstruction / surgery*