Role of Protein Phosphatase 1 and Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 1 in Nitric Oxide-Dependent Inhibition of the DNA Damage Response in Pancreatic β-Cells

Diabetes. 2018 May;67(5):898-910. doi: 10.2337/db17-1062. Epub 2018 Feb 14.


Nitric oxide is produced at micromolar levels by pancreatic β-cells during exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. While classically viewed as damaging, nitric oxide also activates pathways that promote β-cell survival. We have shown that nitric oxide, in a cell type-selective manner, inhibits the DNA damage response (DDR) and, in doing so, protects β-cells from DNA damage-induced apoptosis. This study explores potential mechanisms by which nitric oxide inhibits DDR signaling. We show that inhibition of DDR signaling (measured by γH2AX formation and the phosphorylation of KAP1) is selective for nitric oxide, as other forms of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species do not impair DDR signaling. The kinetics and broad range of DDR substrates that are inhibited suggest that protein phosphatase activation may be one mechanism by which nitric oxide attenuates DDR signaling in β-cells. While protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a primary regulator of DDR signaling and an inhibitor of PP1 (IPP1) is selectively expressed only in β-cells, disruption of either IPP1 or PP1 does not modify the inhibitory actions of nitric oxide on DDR signaling in β-cells. These findings support a PP1-independent mechanism by which nitric oxide selectively impairs DDR signaling and protects β-cells from DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Cell Survival
  • DNA Damage*
  • Histones / drug effects
  • Histones / metabolism
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / drug effects*
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide / pharmacology*
  • Nitric Oxide Donors / pharmacology*
  • Phosphoproteins / drug effects
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Phosphatase 1 / drug effects*
  • Protein Phosphatase 1 / metabolism
  • Proteins / drug effects*
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Signal Transduction


  • Histones
  • Nitric Oxide Donors
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Proteins
  • gamma-H2AX protein, rat
  • protein phosphatase inhibitor-1, rat
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Protein Phosphatase 1