Multiple dimensions of excessive daytime sleepiness

J Thorac Dis. 2018 Jan;10(Suppl 1):S170-S176. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2017.11.32.


Background: In this study we investigated subjective measures of sleepiness and related our findings to dimensions of affect, fatigue, emotion, mood and quality of life based on a hypothetical multidimensional model of sleepiness.

Methods: Patients referred to a sleep clinic were assessed regarding their excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep complaints, routine and symptoms. Age, gender and body mass index (BMI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), the Samn-Perelli fatigue Scale (SPS), the Global Vigor and Affect Scale (GVS and GAS, respectively), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D, respectively), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PAS and NAS, respectively) scores were recorded.

Results: Fifty patients [25 male, 45.2 (18.7) years] completed the questionnaires. The ESS scores were positively correlated with SSS, SPS, HADS-A, HADS-D and NAS scores and negatively with GVS and GAS scores (P<0.05). The SPS (P<0.001) and HADS-A scores (P=0.002) were independently associated with the ESS scores (R2=0.532, adjusted R2 =0.4794, P<0.001).

Conclusions: A model of sleepiness that assesses dimensions of fatigue and anxiety could explain the symptom of subjective sleepiness better than the isolated use of the ESS.

Keywords: Affect; Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); fatigue; mood; quality of life.