Study of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontal diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2017 Sep 12;31:62. doi: 10.18869/mjiri.31.62. eCollection 2017.

Abstract

Background: The mouth cavity hosts various types of anaerobic bacteria including Porphyromonas gingivalis, which causes periodontal inflammatory diseases. P. gingivalis is a gram-negative oral anaerobe and is considered as a main etiological factor in periodontal diseases. Several studies have reported a relationship between P. gingivalis in individuals with periodontal diseases and a critical role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. The present study aimed at estimating this probability using a meta-analysis. Methods: We searched several databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science to identify case-control studies addressing the relationship between P. gingivalis with periodontal diseases. A total of 49 reports published from different countries from 1993 to 2014 were included in this study. I² (heterogeneity index) statistics were calculated to examine heterogeneity. Data were analyzed using STATA Version 11. Results: After a detailed analysis of the selected articles, 49 case-control studies with 5924 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The healthy controls included 2600 healthy individuals with a Mean±SD age of 36.56±7.45 years. The periodontal diseases group included 3356 patients with a mean age of 43.62±8.35 years. There was a statistically significant difference between P. gingivalis in periodontal patients and healthy controls; 9.24 (95% CI: 5.78 to 14.77; P = 0.000). In the other word, there was a significant relationship between the presence of P. gingivalis and periodontal diseases. Conclusion: Analyzing the results of the present study, we found a strong association between the presence of P. gingivalis and periodontal diseases. This result suggests that another research is needed to further assess this subject.

Keywords: Aggressive Periodontitis; Chronic Periodontitis; Gingivitis; Periodontal Diseases; Porphyromonas gingivalis.