Background: The latissimus dorsi flap is a reliable and one of the most commonly used methods of both immediate and delayed breast reconstruction. Its disadvantage is the limited volume of transferred tissue. The authors present their experience with the use of extended latissimus dorsi flap associated with immediate fat grafting into the pectoralis and latissimus dorsi muscles for secondary breast reconstruction.
Methods: From 2013 to 2016, 14 patients underwent secondary unilateral total breast reconstruction with extended latissimus dorsi flap associated with primary fat grafting into the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles. Fat was injected under visual control between muscle fibers. Fat injected into the pectoralis muscle formed an apparent bulging - autoprosthesis.
Results: Mean patient age was 48.2 years (range, 34 to 64 years). Mean injected fat volume was 86.4 ml (range, 50 to 160 ml) and majority of this volume was injected into the pectoralis muscle. All flaps healed uneventfully and no fat grafting-related complications were observed. The most common complication was donor site seroma, which occurred in 57.1%. Results of postoperative ultrasound examination were evaluated. Incidence and the size of oil cysts and fat necroses were significantly lower in muscular layer in comparison with the subcutaneous layer of the reconstructed breast.
Conclusions: Immediate fat transfer into the pectoralis and latissimus dorsi muscle increases the breast volume during the reconstruction with extended latissimus dorsi flap avoiding implant-related complications when abdominal tissue is not available. Pectoralis and latissimus dorsi muscles were shown as reliable and safe recipients for fat grafting.
Keywords: Latissimus dorsi; autologous; breast reconstruction; fat grafting pectoral muscle.; secondary.