Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has not been used to assess the effects of statins on the brain. We assessed the effect of statins on cognition using standard neuropsychological assessments and brain neural activation with fMRI on two tasks.
Methods: Healthy statin-naïve men and women (48±15 years) were randomized to 80 mg/day atorvastatin (n=66; 27 men) or placebo (n=84; 48 men) for 6 months. Participants completed cognitive testing while on study drug and 2 months after treatment cessation using alternative test and task versions.
Results: There were few changes in standard neuropsychological tests with drug treatment (all P>.56). Total and delayed recall from the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised increased in both groups (P<.05). The Stroop Color-Word score increased (P<.01) and the 18-Point Clock Test decreased in the placebo group (P=.02) after drug cessation. There were, however, small but significant group-time interactions for each fMRI task: participants on placebo had greater activation in the right putamen/dorsal striatum during the maintenance phase of the Sternberg task while on placebo but the effect was reversed after drug washout (P<.001). Participants on atorvastatin had greater activation in the bilateral precuneus during the encoding phase of the Figural Memory task while on-drug but the effect was reversed after drug washout (P<.001).
Conclusion: Six months of high dose atorvastatin therapy is not associated with measurable changes in neuropsychological test scores, but did evoke transient differences in brain activation patterns. Larger, longer-term clinical trials are necessary to confirm these findings and evaluate their clinical implications.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00609063.
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